Every divorce is different. Some are simple and inexpensive. Some divorces involve complex assets. Some cases become contentious because of issues involving support, custody, property valuations, and other issues.
Because each divorce is different, this page summarizes the steps that may take place in your case. This summary is not intended to be all inclusive or to deal with every situation that may arise. You should speak with your attorney for legal advice specific to your situation.
We will have an initial meeting to discuss your case. Our communications are confidential and may not be disclosed without your consent. The selection of a lawyer is a highly personal matter. We encourage you to ask any questions about the way in which we represent our clients or our qualifications. After we discuss with you the facts, law, and issues in your case, we encourage you to carefully consider whether we are a good fit for your needs. We want to ensure that we are partners in resolving your case.
Before our firm represents you, we will ask that you sign a contract, which will set forth our responsibilities to you, and your responsibilities to us. We will also ask that you pay a retainer to the firm. We will use your retainer to pay costs associated with your divorce, and to pay for the time we spend working on your case.
Within a few weeks of our first meeting with you, we will attempt to gather as much information as possible and to make the major decisions on how the case will be handled. This stage of our involvement is very important. Your cooperation is indispensable. Lawyers are sometimes referred to as "brick masons" -- we build the walls, but you supply the bricks.
You will be asked to fill out an information form to provide basic information (names, addresses, etc.), which will be used later on in the case to prepare letters, pleadings (documents that are filed with the court), agreements, and the like. It is important that you be accurate with names, spellings, and dates.
Later, you may be asked to provide more detailed information and complete more forms, such as a Uniform Support Affidavit, which summarizes your income and expenses. It is critical that these documents be completed accurately, as they will be relied on by your attorney and the court.
We may also provide you with a list of documents that you will be required to gather. Opposing counsel may also request documents. If you receive such a request, we will discuss that as well.
It is our goal within the first few weeks of your case to have sufficient information and documentation to make major decisions as to how your case should be handled. This means, for instance, whether or not settlement proposals will be made, what relief will be sought, and what we hope to accomplish overall in our representation of you. These goals may change as we move forward and become more educated as to the facts and law that apply to your case.
Family law related matters are heard and determined in the Circuit Courts of the state of Oregon. There is a Family Law Department in some of the counties of our state, including Multnomah and Washington counties. If your case is filed in Washington County, you will be assigned to one judge, who will make every decision that has to be made by the court in your case. In Multnomah County, you may also be assigned to one judge in certain circumstances. In some other counties, family law cases are heard by judges who also hear other civil and criminal cases.
The case must be initiated by a Summons and Petition for Dissolution of Marriage. The Summons is the document that gives your spouse notice that he or she will have 30 days in which to file and serve responsive pleadings, such as a Response or Counter Petition. The Petition sets forth the factual and legal basis for your claims.
The Petition, once approved by you, is then filed in the Circuit Court clerk's office in the county where the action will be litigated. A filing fee is required. Upon filing, a docket number is assigned to your case and must be written on all pleadings and motions filed with the court thereafter.
Your spouse must then be personally served with the Summons and Petition. Service for our office is typically done by a private process server. In some cases, your spouse may sign a document called an Acknowledgement and Acceptance of Service, which is a substitute for personal service.
Once your spouse is served, he or she will have 30 days in which to file a Response or Counter Petition. The Response or Counter Petition sets forth the facts and law upon which your spouse will rely in defending against our lawsuit. If your spouse's lawyer has already prepared the Petition, we will prepare a Response or Counter Petition. After you have approved the Response or Counter Petition, we will file it with the court. A filing fee, or "first appearance" fee is required.
Both parties to a divorce are subject to a property “restraining order,” which generally prohibits each party from (1) canceling or altering most kinds of insurance; (2) changing beneficiaries or covered parties on most kinds of insurance; (3) transferring, encumbering, hiding, or disposing of property in which either party has an interest, except to pay ordinary expenses and attorney fees; and (4) making extraordinary expenditures without the agreement of both parties. Either party may request a hearing to modify or revoke the restraining order.
In addition to the Summons, Petition, Response, and Counter Petition, other Motions may be filed from time to time. Examples are as follows:
There are other motions we may file on your behalf, such as a motion for temporary relief and a motion to compel production of documents. Those and other motions will be discussed in more detail later in this summary.
In many instances, it is practically impossible to settle or litigate a dissolution case without the assistance of experts. If your case warrants the engagement of an expert, we will generally advise you to do so.
When financial issues are at stake, we generally advise that you hire a financial expert with experience in the dissolution setting. Experts are generally used in dissolution cases to value businesses and professional practices, to ascertain and determine incomes and cash flows, to trace property and investments, to give tax advice, and to otherwise assist with the financial aspects of the case.
Where there is a dispute as to property values, we generally advise that real estate appraisers and personal property appraisers be hired to appraise the real estate and personal property that will be at issue in the case. Again, we prefer to hire appraisers who have experience in court and whose opinion is respected by other attorneys and by judges. The case law governing family law matters requires that competent evidence be presented to the court. In the absence of adequate proof from you, the judge is at liberty to accept the values put forth by your adversary, which most likely will not be to your benefit.
When serious issues of child custody or visitation are raised, we generally recommend that an experienced clinical psychologist be hired to evaluate the family and to assist in making the child custody and visitation decisions. We also recommend using clinical psychologists to work through custody and visitation problems, which may defuse the contested nature of those issues. The court may also order such an evaluation.
Sometimes it is necessary at the beginning of the case to ask the court to make orders for temporary relief during the pendency of the case. Such relief may include, among other things, temporary spousal or child support, temporary exclusive use of the family home, temporary custody of minor children, payment of monthly bills, and payment of attorney fees, and "suit money, " to assist you in retaining experts to help with your case.
In most counties, a hearing for temporary relief may be ordered on the motion of a party. If at all possible, it is generally best to attempt to resolve these temporary issues without a hearing.
Under Oregon law, if you have minor children, both parents are required to attend a parenting class before the divorce can be finalized. Sometimes, it is helpful for both parents to attend the class at the same time, as the class provides good information about how to get through the divorce process with as little negative impact on the children as possible.
The exchange of information in a divorce, including documents that are related to income, assets (including inheritances, real property, and business assets), and liabilities, is called “discovery.” The purpose of discovery is to find out the key points and elements of your spouse's case and to help you and the court reach a fair and equitable result in your divorce. Further, under Oregon law, if a party fails to disclose a significant asset that existed at the time of the divorce, the divorce case may be reopened. Moreover, many discovery responses are admissible in evidence at hearings in your case. Therefore, the discovery process should be taken very seriously.
Discovery is generally necessary whether the case is settled or litigated. In order to properly settle the case, we must have a general awareness of the facts involved in your case, particularly the financial facts. If the case is to be litigated, discovery is necessary in order to properly prepare and present the case at a final hearing. Dissolution cases are not necessarily won by who is right but, rather, are oftentimes won by the party who is better prepared.
Formal discovery under the Oregon Rules of Civil Procedure (ORCP) generally consists of the following:
Once the case is filed in the Circuit Court, there will typically be motions as have been discussed above. Motions for contempt or motions to compel discovery are also typical. Contempt matters generally involve enforcement of prior court-approved agreements or orders, such as an order for payment of temporary child or spousal support. Circuit Court judgments and orders should be treated very seriously. The penalties involved in failure to comply with these documents can be substantial and may even include jail time. As previously noted, motions to compel discovery are brought when information has been requested but not provided, or when a party refuses to cooperate with attempts to gain information.
In Oregon, the practice of Family Law is governed by a large body of case law (decided by our the Oregon Court of Appeals and the Oregon Supreme Court), statutes (created by our legislature), Court Rules (promulgated by our Supreme Court), and administrative rules.
The law governing domestic relations is an ever-changing body of law. We attempt to keep ourselves apprised of these changes as they are made. We subscribe to many periodicals and services to enable us to do so.
Typically, dissolution cases may take six to 12 months to complete, with some exceptions. Oregon law requires that once a case is filed with the court, it will remain on the active trial roster for nine months. After that time, it is dismissed, but may sometimes be reinstated for good cause.
The time it takes to complete your case will depend on several factors, many of which are not within our control or your control. It will depend in large part upon the issues that you and your spouse chose to contest. The more issues, and the greater complexity, the longer the case will take to complete.
We encourage you to attempt to reach agreement on as many issues as possible. The process of fully litigating each issue can be very lengthy and expensive and should be reserved for only those issues about which there are significant disagreements.
As attorneys in the matrimonial field, our first efforts are always directed to determine if a possibility of reconciliation exists. Only when you are satisfied that no such possibility exists do we attempt to move forward. Only clients who are certain that their marital relationship is over should proceed with a dissolution action. Dissolution cases always impacts families. They are emotionally draining and expensive. A dissolution of marriage should be obtained only as a matter of last resort. We can provide you the names of qualified counselors and mediators who may be able to assist you in avoiding a divorce.
When you are certain that no possibility of reconciliation exists, then and only then do we move forward. The disputes that you have with your spouse will either be concluded by a written agreement or by the court making the decisions for you and your spouse regarding, among other things, child custody, child visitation, child support, spousal support, property and debt division, tax matters, and attorney fees.
Under Oregon law, marital differences can be resolved by a written Marital Settlement Agreement or a Stipulated General Judgment of Dissolution of Marriage. In order for such an agreement to be valid, it must be signed by both parties, each of whom should be represented by separate counsel, entered into after full financial disclosure, freely and voluntarily and without duress, coercion, and overreaching. Parties can also agree to settle their disputes “on the record,” before a judge. If the judge approves the agreement, we would then prepare a judgment that conforms to the agreement, which would then be presented to the judge for signature.
If you and your spouse are not able to resolve issues, we generally recommend mediation as an efficient and fair way to resolve those issues without litigation. Mediators are impartial persons, who specialize in helping parties reach an agreement and resolve all or some issues of their case. Mediators cannot force people to reach a settlement, or impose terms of settlement. In mediation, you will have a degree of control over the outcome that you will not have in court.
Under Oregon law, you may also obtain a legal separation. Although we rarely advise clients to take this option, it is sometimes appropriate when a dissolution would not be acceptable, either for religious or cultural reasons, or when you wish to maintain married status for insurance purposes.
In order to reach a global settlement, there must be an open exchange of financial information so that both parties are sufficiently aware of all income, debts, and assets involved in the case. It is usually very helpful to have a Certified Public Accountant assist in that financial disclosure and with the analysis of the information provided and of the offers and counter-offers that are typically made.
Settlement is preferred over litigated results as a settlement is generally less expensive to achieve from a fee and cost standpoint, and also provides certainty. It has been said that you and your spouse may resolve your differences with surgical precision, but a judge will use a meat axe.
Depending on the county in which you case is filed, the court may schedule a status conference or pretrial hearing. The purpose of the status conference or pretrial hearing is to make sure that the case is ready for trial and that all reasonable efforts have been exhausted to settle the issues that are otherwise to be determined by the court. A status conference is more informal than a pretrial hearing and may even be conducted by telephone.
Some final hearings last only two to three hours. Others last three or more days. Typically, a fully contested dissolution case will take one to three days of trial time to complete on the merits. When the issue of custody is also contested, that generally will enlarge the time of trial by one or more days.
Once the court's decision has been rendered, one or both of the lawyers will be requested to draft a judgment for the judge's signature. The judgment will set forth the court's findings and rulings on the issues.
Within 30 days of the court issuing its final judgment in the matter, you have the right to appeal. That appeal is initially made to the Oregon Court of Appeals. The appeal process involves securing transcripts of all of the proceedings in the Circuit Court and copies of the exhibits and having all of the pertinent portions of the lower court records presented to the appellate court. That becomes the Record on Appeal.
Once the Record on Appeal is completed, the spouse who appeals must present a written Opening Brief. The opposing spouse then has the opportunity to present what is called an Answering Brief, to which the appealing spouse has the right to enter a Reply Brief. These Briefs set forth your legal position on the facts and law as they apply to your case.
After the Record on Appeal and Briefs have been completed, the appellate court will then typically set the case for oral argument. In the Court of Appeals, oral argument takes place before a three judge panel.
The appellate court then issues its decision, which it may do by published or unpublished opinion. Typically, that opinion will affirm, reverse, or reverse in part and affirm in part. A party may then petition for Supreme Court review of the Court of Appeals' decision. Supreme Court review is at the discretion of that court and very few cases are taken by the Supreme Court for review.
If the case is affirmed on appeal, then the trial court judgment will become the final judgment in this case and will be implemented.
If the trial court judgment is reversed or modified, the appellate court can direct specifically how the judgment is to be modified, or it may remand the case to the trial court for further proceedings consistent with the appellate court's opinion.
Appeals are generally considered expensive for many reasons. You must order and pay for transcripts of the lower court proceedings, which must then be assembled and duplicated in order to become the Record on Appeal. The briefs involved in appeal are labor intensive and take many lawyer hours to complete. Appeals should be taken only when you are truly aggrieved by the lower court's decision and the economics of the situation justifying the cost. In addition, in Oregon it may take many months, at times even years, for a decision on appeal to be made.
When your case has been settled by agreement or litigated to a conclusion through the court, we then may work with you in an attempt to bring closure to the case by writing letters detailing who is to do what and making sure that appropriate deeds have been completed and recorded, Qualified Domestic Relations Orders (which are required to divide certain kinds of retirement accounts) are appropriately transmitted dividing retirement plans, and important discovery papers are returned to the you.
After the case is completed, there may come a time when your spouse does not do what has been agreed or ordered. If that is the case, we generally will request compliance on your behalf, if you ask us to do so. We will then bring an appropriate contempt action in the Circuit Court, as discussed above.
In certain instances, the Circuit Court can modify prior agreements and judgments that involve spousal support, child support and related issues, custody, and parenting time. Generally speaking, other matters relating to the dissolution, such as property division, are not subject to modification.
It is our advice to do what you want to do the first time around. It is much easier to get the job done in the first instance, rather than to come back later and attempt to change a prior agreement or judgment. The burdens are much greater after the fact.
After we have some general idea of what you would like us to do on your behalf, we will discuss the issues of fees and costs. You and the attorney who will be primarily responsible for your case will sign a written fee agreement. That fee agreement will generally provide for a retainer, against which we will bill at our prevailing hourly rates, plus costs, as detailed in the attorney client agreement.